Hybrid Vigor

Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring. The adjective derived from hecterosis is heterotic. An offspring exhibits heterosis if its traits are enhanced as a result of mixing the genetic contributions of its parents.

In Addition ,what i have found with talking to my vets,  In most cases , Both parents have to carry the gene in order to pass it on to the offspring,, few genetic problems are carried in the breeds we are breeding , Thankfully, There is where the Hybrid vigor comes in.

Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) Testing

CERF Testing is designed to screen for eye disorders.. These tests must be performed annually in order to be current, in which case the results are unreliable. 

Why? Well, for instance, if you produced a litter of puppies with a sire that has tested negative  and then the next year he tests positive-you have already produced a litter of puppies that are potentially carrying the gene for the disorder.

While DNA testing is supposedly  the most accurate method of testing,,,,that also can not be inaccurate  too many times they are found to be clear then come up with the disease later, The reality is that any qualified vet should be able to examine your dog and be able to recognize potential issues. Also, given what i have been told and have read ,  both parents must carry the PRA gene in order for it to pass to their offspring. I do wish there was a fool proof test but I dont think there is unfortunately , . 

Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) Testing

VWD is a blood disorder that affects both humans and dogs. It has recently come to our attention that these tests are not foolproof, be it through blood or DNA testing, however this is one of the most important screenings you can have performed on your dog.

As with PRA, both parents must carry the VWD gene in order for their pups to be affected. One parent can be a carrier for this disorder, and so long as the other parent is clear they will produce unaffected pups. All of our dogs are either cleared through testing, or if they were bred by us and their parents were cleared we assume them to be clear by proxy.

Sebaceous Adenitis (SA) Testing

SA is a rare inflammatory skin disorder that affects Poodles. This test is very painful for the dog and is extremely unreliable. If a dog is tested in an area that is unaffected, the results will come back negative even if the dog is affected in another area.

 Hip Dysplasia : Nature or Nurture?

Did you Know that the heritability of hip dysplasia is estimated to be as low as 25%? That means that 75% is environmental – an overweight dog is one of those environmental factors with strong science supporting that theory.

Hip Dysplasia (HD) is defined as the abnormal development or growth of the hip joint. The hip in all mammals is a ball and socket joint. The tip of the femur is supposed to fit nicely inside the curvature of the hip socket. Lack of fit causes side-effects such as arthritis, pain, limping, and impacts other joints as the dog compensates for the hip joint failure. All of our breeding dogs are tested by one of our vets before breeding, and are OFA certified if over 2 years old. 



Hereditary HD occurs during the development of the pup in the womb. In this instance, the puppy’s hip sockets are flawed from conception. There is no guarantee against this disorder. If HD is anywhere in the pup’s background (even five generations back) there is a possibility the pup will inherit this issue.

One example is sublaxation, which means that while the hip joint was formed properly the ball and socket do not fit snuggly. In this instance, the hip formation will deteriorate over time without good veterinary care and possibly hip surgery. This situation may be mitigated with proper care to avoid or reduce painful side-effects.

Environmental Factors

Environmental HD is the result of an injury or stress on the hip-joint over time as the pup is growing. Ideally, puppies will be born without dysplasia, and movement will encourage good hip and bone development.

However, in large breeds puppies grow very quickly during a short period of time. Rapid growth alone stresses the joints and ligaments, then add rough play while sockets are still forming and hip dysplasia may occur.

Injury and vigorous play while joints are still forming in puppyhood can often aggravate or create hip dysplasia in any breed. Find out what you can do to prevent HD below.

What You Can Do to Prevent It

  1. Always feed your dog high quality dog food. Proper nutrition is vital to your puppy’s health and goes a long way toward preventing many diseases and disorders. For the Best I have found!
  2. Always feed you dog the proper amount to avoid weight issues. Extra weight puts additional stress on developing hips, but too little weight is also a problem. Talk with your vet or breeder about the correct amount to maintain optimal health.
  3. Give your dog a high quality vitamin supplement. Ask your breeder for a recommendation.
  4. Limit your pup’s access to slick floors, rooms with rugs are preferred. Slipping and sliding after a toy may be adorable, but it can also risk a serious accident.
  5. Little to no stair usage until 4-6 months of age. We all know what a work out stairs can be, and your puppy’s body is taxed by stair-climbing as well. Between the added stress and the angle of the stairs it makes his hips work over-time and can literally destroy them.
  6. Limit exercise to age appropriate duration and intensity. Excessive exercise creates tired muscles and ligaments that will make your puppy prone to injury. Do not encourage him to play if he wants to rest, and take care not to venture too far from home when going for walks. Puppies need to rest every 15 minutes or so, and if you go too far the walk back may be too much.
  7. Jumping on or over things is one of the worst things a developing pup can do to his hips, elbows, and knees-not to mention poor manners! Holding a toy up in the air and having them leap to get it is teasing, and is very hard on a pup’s developing joints.

Canine Cancer Considerations

 My immediate thoughts are if we could prevent cancers in animals we could in people too, God has not given us that ability yet.When he does will be be better world indeed.  Most cancers as in humans are environmental. The more Research I do on GMO in our foods, both human and animals, the more I personally think this is a strong  but underreported cause of most cancers.

A retrospective study of cardiac tumors in dogs showed that there was a 5 times greater risk of hemangiosarcoma, one of the three most common cancers in dogs, in spayed bitches than intact bitches and a 2.4 times greater risk of hemangiosarcoma in neutered dogs as compared to intact males.

A study of 3218 dogs demonstrated that dogs that were neutered before a year of age had a significantly increased chance of developing bone cancer. A separate study showed that neutered dogs had a two-fold higher risk of developing bone cancer.Despite the common belief that neutering dogs helps prevent prostate cancer, at least one study suggests that neutering provides no benefit. There certainly is evidence of a slightly increased risk of mammary cancer in female dogs after one heat cycle, and for increased risk with each subsequent heat. While about 30 % of mammary cancers are malignant, as in humans, when caught and surgically removed early the prognosis is very good. Luckily, canine athletes are handled frequently and generally receive prompt veterinary care

 Addison’s Disease – Inherited or Genetic?

Research has shown that Addison’s Disease is genetic, but the exact method of inheritance is not yet known. It is thought that there may be an environmental trigger. There are ongoing research projects for several breeds, including Standard Poodles, Leonbergers, Great Danes, and West Highland White Terriers, with hopes of identifying a genetic marker. However, at this time there is no specific test to identify the gene, only a test to diagnose whether or not the dog’s adrenal glands are functioning properly.